For 1200 years the Maya Civilization dominated Meso-América while Europe was still in the dark ages.
- The Maya had advanced knowledge of mathematics, geometry, architecture and hydraulics.
- Great achievements in science, language, music and medicine.
- Accomplished astronomers, charting planets and tracking the movement of the Sun.
- They applied highly elaborated mathematical calculations recording the major historical events in the past and future.
- The movements of the Moon, Mars, Venus and other stars and planets were calculated with exactitude.
- The Maya formulated equations that could predict when solar and lunar eclipses would take place.
- They knew of the “Galactic Alignment,” a phenomenon that occurs between the Solstice Sun (December) with the Equator of the Milky Way; our Galaxy.
- In the mythology of the Maya Creation, the dark ridge of the Milky Way is the main entrance to Xibalbá, the Maya Underworld.
The Earth wobbles on its axis and shifts every 71 years approximately. Because of the size of the sun, it takes the December Solstice Sun, 36 years to precess through the Galactic Equator.
- The sun, in the solstice, will be lining with the center of the Milky Way at the same date.
- The Earth completes a wobble on its axis every 26,000 years. Precession
Where did they get all this knowledge?
Five hundred years before the arrival of the invaders, universities, ceremonial centers and complete cities had been abandoned under mysterious circumstances. When the Spaniards arrived in the Yucatán, most of the Maya were gone. In the IX century they had abandoned their cities.
It is believed that more than 7 million people “disappeared” in one of the greatest mysteries of our earth. Just in Tikal, one of the largest urban centers of the Maya, in the Petén region, now northern Guatemala, 80% of its population disappeared.
TEMPLES AND PYRAMIDS
Every aspect of the Maya life was studied, planned and designed by the Priests according to their beliefs, Mother Earth and the skies.
- Ancient civilizations in Meso-América designed their cities in alignment with the skies.
- Some temples were used as astronomical observatories; others had ritual and ceremonial purposes.
- The Maya were great astronomers, mapped the phases of celestial objects and built their sacred cities as a mirror of the “above.”
- The pyramids represent sacred mountains or planets and are perfectly aligned with planets or stars.
- In many of the temples, doors or windows are aligned to the different celestial events.
- The round Temples were often dedicated to Kukulcán, the flying god, the snake-like deity that had wings and could fly. These temples were used to observe the movement of the skies.
- Buildings were remodeled and rebuilt every fifty-two* years in synchrony with the Maya Long Count Calendar and their belief in resurrection and death; every time better than the last one.
The “Ball Game” was also a representation of resurrection and birth. Perfectly aligned and measured to represent a cycle and the rebirth of the new cycle; their message of transformation and renewal.
The symbolic representation of the court has many interpretations. Some say it is the representation of a galactic ball court, being the ring, the galactic center. The ball would represent the Sun.
The Quinametzin Giants
Tlachihualtépetl, Náhuatl, for “artificial mountain,” now Cholula, in Puebla, México, is the world’s largest monument and largest pyramid by volume. It was partially destroyed by the Spanish, constructing a Church on top and using stones for their buildings. It has not been totally explored because the Church owns the property.
- The volume of the structure in Cholula is 4.45 million cubic meters. The pyramid of Egypt is 2.5.
- Cholula was identified with the planet Venus.
- The construction of the temple of Chiconaquiahuitl, God of the ninth rain, was carried out over several generations.
- The total of seven superimposed pyramids has a base of 1,476,377 ft., 450 m. and a height of 66 m. (217 ft.).
The construction of the pyramid of Cholula and the City of Teotihuacán was attributed to the Quinametzin Giants. At the arrival of the Spaniards, the Tlaxcaltecas said that they fought against the last Giant before their arrival.
Teotihuacán, “the Place where Men become Gods,” near México City, is another incredible well planned astronomically aligned Metropolis.
- The Toltec used it as a University.
- It was abandoned when the Aztec found it and the real name is still unknown.
- The Aztec used it as a sacred place and the local legend was that a Giant constructed it.
- This”Giant,” that in their mythology constructed Cholula and Teotihuacán, resembles the Quinametzin Giants and the Maya God Itzamná, “the god that could fly.”
Teotihuacán Interactive 360 degree map – Instituto Nacional de Antropologia E Historia INAH – Google Maps »
“Atlantes de Tula” – Tollan Xicocotitlan, now Tula, Hidalgo, México, was the ancient capital city of the Toltecs.
Legend says that it was built by the Quinametzin (Náhuatl), a race of giants who populated the world during the previous era and whose survivors were hidden in those days. In their mythology, theQuinametzin were created during the “Sun of Rain”, and its ruler was Tlaloc. His rule ended when Quetzalcóatl, the feathered snake deity, made “rain fire” and the Quinametzin burned to death. The huge stone columns on top of the pyramid, with human characteristics, are almost 18 ft. in height and are known as the “Atlantes”.
Hueman gathered the knowledge of the Toltec in the “Divine Toltec Book.”
Uxmal, Yucatán, México
“El Adivino”- the Magician, is an 131 ft. high pyramid, in a beautiful, well designed city. Legend has it that a dwarf, son of a sorcerer, built it in one night when he competed against the king in strength and magic.
- The dwarf used vibration to lift the huge blocks by whistling and making sounds.
- These legends of dwarfs, giants and flying gods predominate in the Meso-América and Maya mythological view of the world.
CÓDICES – CODEX
The Maya books written in hieroglyphic text with beautiful drawings are called Códices or Codex.
- The Maya registered their history and knowledge in these books made of tree-bark paper, folded like an accordion and covered with lime to preserve them.
- The paper was, and is still made, of the fig tree bark or “amátl” (Náhuatl). The amate tree bark is pound with stones, and left several days to dry
Secret writing codes were passed from generation to generation, and only the scribes and members of the royal family had the privilege of learning how to write. An offering of paper/book or “Hu’un” was a symbol of knowledge.
When the Spanish conquered México, the monks burned almost all of the books. We only know of three that survived;
Dresden Codex that isin Germany, the Madrid Codex in Spain, and the Paris Codex in France. The Grolier Codex is in México City, however its authenticity is disputed. It appeared in 1970’s in a cave in the State of Chiapas, México.
Dresden Codex Códice de Dresden
Códice de Dresden – This wonderful book has 39 leaves written on both sides with elaborated work of art that includes almanacs, eclipses, the Venus Cycle Charts and astrology.
- Contains an illustration with the picture of the Underworld or Xibalbá; on the top it has a representation of the flood.
- There are warnings of disasters, end of a cycle and planets aligned.
The Maya tracked the movements of the planets and stars. This incredible codex shows the importance and the extraordinary knowledge of the Venus Cycle, which was associated with war.
In Katún 2 it gives us this warning:
“for half, there will be food for others misfortune; a time to unite.”
- Códice de Madrid – With more than one hundred pages divided into the Troano and the Cortesianus Codex, it is thought it is the product of one scribe.
- Códice Paresianus – now in Paris – contains prophecies, a zodiac, calendars and references to the T’ún and K’atún. It is in a very poor condition as it was lost for several years. Some of the prophecies in the Codex are of hope, some are warnings of what may come and what we can change. One of the prophecies says that our world, as we know it, will come to an end in the 13th Baktún (2012).
Time was a very important part in the life of the Maya. They closely observed the planets and record the cycles. The Maya had several calendars that were coordinated with each other:
- T’zolkin or Ritual calendar,
- Nine Men Calendar – “Nueve Señores,”
- Long Count,
- Short Count and
- Secret Count Calendar
T’zolkin, “Ritual Calendar” – T’zol (spiral or snake) – Kin (days) – “spiral way of the sacred days.”
With lucky and unlucky days, the T’zolkin is composed of 260 days and 20 “unknown” days.
- Each day had a description advising the undertaking in trades, crops, wars, births, etc.
- It is conformed with numbers “Tonallis,” (Náhuatl – bright) and 20 hieroglyphic “Nahuallis” (mysterious days).
- These days form a double gear teeth that, when it advances, it creates a perfect cycle of 260 days.
- Just imagine the inside of a watch; 2 circles with indentations; a perfect design.
Tun, “Civil Calendar”
The Tun is composed of Uinal and Uayeb days. With cicles of 20 days called “Uinales,” the Tun had a total of 365 days; 360 days plus 5 more days called “Uayeb.” Tun, is a calendar organized in periods of twenty *(vigesimal);
- Uinales – 20 days, Katun – 20 years or 7,200 days, Baktun – 400 years or 144,000 days.
- The Long Count Calendar is divided into Bak’tuns – 144,000-day cycles that begin at the Maya creation date. The winter solstice of 2012 (Dec. 21) is the last day of the 13th. Bak’tun, marking what the Maya people would have seen as a full cycle of creation.
|18||260 Days||13 Cycles||360 Days|
|7||260 Days||5 Cycles||364 Days|
|73 Tzolkin||260 Days||52 Years||265 Days|
|1,461 Tzolkin days||1,040 Years|
Haab, “Yail – moon,” “Lunar Calendar”
The Ha’ab is a 28 day, 13 month calendar that gives us 364 days plus an extra day dedicated to Hu´nab-Ku, the “giver of time,” giving us a total of 365 days. Each day has symbol: turtle, bat, scorpion, deer, owl, peacock, monkey, falcon, jaguar, dog, snake, rabbit and lizard.
Cosmological and Mythological View
Popol Vuh, the sacred book of the Maya, contains the mythological version of the Creation of Mother Earth. According to this book, Mother Earth was created and destroyed three times before this world was made. The concept of New Era or New Sun represents the re-creation or re-birth of the world after its destruction. It has creation stories, cosmology, and the adventures of Hunahpu’ and X’balanqué, the hero twins of the Maya mythology.
In some of the civilizations in MesoAmérica, Mother Earth has had four ages or New Suns, and we are living in the Fifth Era or Fifth Sun. For the Toltec and Aztec, the world was created five times; Fifth Sun, and we are in the Sixth.
The Olmec and the Maya, in their Long Count Calendar, set the date of 3114 B.C., as the creation date of their world, and the second creation of Mother Earth.
Itzamna’aj – I’tzamná,”the Descending God,” Mérida Museum, Yucatán
“Four Ages or Suns existed before, but they were destroyed by huge catastrophes, as well as everything that existed. Deities accorded to meet in a sacred place to create the world again and give humanity another chance; they decided to do it in Teotihuacán, the city “where Men become Gods.” “They lit a great fire and began discussing who should be sacrificed in order to become the Sun that would give life to the new Creation.” INAH – Instituto Nacional de Arqueología e Historia, México
The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel and the “World Trees or World Quarters”- 1775-1800
Chilamor Chilan - “interpreter of the gods” – “Balam” – jaguar – Chumayel – Village in the Yucatán Peninsula.
The Sacred Maya Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel relates the story of the conquest of the Yucatán by Spain. It was illustrated and written in Chumayel, Yucatán. The book relates the ritual of the Four World Quarters, a prophecy for Katún 11 A’hau or Ajaw, announcing the arrival of the Spaniards to America in the year 1492.
Katún 8 A’hauhas a magical meaning as the Maya made their migrations and the important decisions on the beginning of this date. However the Itzá Maya made another revision in their calendar so that the cycle, that was due to end two Katuns later, in an apocalyptic date of 13 Ahau, would be celebrated on a different date. Therefore the new cycle initiated in 1824 where they predict the ending of the tribute to the Spaniards. Some say they were predicting the Caste War of the Yucatán when the Maya, that were left in the peninsula, were almost exterminated by the Spaniards, the Church and the Mestizos.
After defeating the Spanish in 1821, the Constitution of the United Mexican States – La Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos- was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the foreigners. So the year 1824 would be a very important year.
So, we have it wrong……. 2012 is not the end of the Maya Calendar.
“The bearded, the robust….our minor brothers….”
Makes reference to what was before the Spaniards arrived and after:
“They adhered to their reason. There was no sin; there was then no sickness; no aching bones; no high fever, no ‘smallpox’; no burning chest; no headache. At that time the course of humanity was orderly. The foreigners made it otherwise when they arrived here. They taught fear….”
“Saddened because they will come, from Orient will come when they come to this land, the bearded, the messengers of the signal of divinity, the foreigners of the land, the robust.” (Spaniards).
Also talks about the changes that would come ending in the year 2012;
“The white, sons of Father Sun…”
It tells us what happened and what will happen again (circle inside a circle). Two cycles of 260 years each one: cycle inside a cycle.
The 520 year count starts December 24, 1492 – 11 Ajauw Katún – Ichcaanzihó (Mérida,Yucatán, México) and ends in the 13 Ajaw K’atún:
Starting in April 28, 1992 and ending in 13 Ajaw – December 21 or 22, 2012. It has notes on the calendar, astronomy and the creation of the world. There is a description of the Rituals of the Angels, a sacred song of the Itzá, the Creation of the Uinal, the Prophecy of Chilam Balam, an incantation, and a book of Katún Prophecies. Explains the building of the mounds, collapse of the sky and the erection of the Five World Trees. The book is illustrated and there are inscriptions in Spanish and Maya.
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“El Duende,” a Maya Legend: The Three Treasures: Let’s Explore!
Bilingual Book Series/Series de Libros Bilingües